Updated 31.03.21

Healthcare rights of migrants

Asylum seekers: Are entitled to primary health care. For advanced services, a minimal fee must be paid. Healthcare is covered either by Fedasil or the local OCMW/CPAS where asylum seekers reside. Asylum seekers are exempt from franchise patient fees, unless they receive financial allowance or earn a professional income. Rejected asylum seekers can have their healthcare costs covered by their reception centers. For those that are no longer entitled to reception, urgent medical assistance is still accessible and covered by their local OCMW/CPAS.


Refugees: After registering through the Belgian health insurance organization, refugees can access health care at the same level as Belgian nationals

Undocumented migrants: Cannot affiliate with a sickness fund. However, they can contact the Public Centre for Social Action (CPAS) of their municipality to access health care via a procedure called Urgent Medical Aid (UMA). The UMA in principle covers preventive health care as well as treatment and therapy for illnesses that are considered curable.

HIV testing and treatment

Testing: Testing is free and anonymous at at 3 sexual health centers (Antwerp, Brussels and Liege). 

Use the aidsmap European test finder to see where you can get tested for HIV. 


Treatment: Treatment is free for some. Undocumented persons may be refused medication in some cases.

For more information on where to obtain treatment, see 

Country Statistics

Total Population: 1,589,623 


Estimated migrant population: 1,387,940


Estimated refugee population (2019): 61,662


Estimated number of undocumented migrants (2019):  100,000 to 150,000


Main migrant populations (2020): Morocco, France, Netherlands