Updated 31.03.21

Healthcare rights of migrants

Asylum seekers: Asylum seekers and beneficiaries of international protection are required to register with the National Health Service and enjoy equal treatment with Italian citizens through insurance provided by the NHS. This includes those out of reception

Medical assistance is extended to each regularly resident family member under the applicant’s care in Italy and is recognised for newborn babies of parents registered with the National Health System.

The right to medical assistance should not expire in the process of the renewal of the permit of stay. However, asylum seekers with an expired permit of stay have no guarantee of access to non-urgent sanitary treatments. 


Refugees: Are entitled to free healthcare, and can enjoy the same benefits as nationals. 


Undocumented migrants: Can apply to a local national health service office for a temporary (six-month) health card.

Through this health card they are entitled to urgent care, essential care, preventive care (including maternity care), and the diagnosis/treatment of infectious diseases.

HIV testing and treatment

Testing: Free in certain places. Private laboratories charge a fee and certain hospitals may require co-payments. Tests are anonymous.

Use the aidsmap European test finder to see where you can get tested for HIV. 


Treatment: Free for all, although treatment is low, and not available for those in prisons.

Country Statistics

Total Population: 60,461,826


Estimated migrant population: 5,788,875


Estimated refugee population (2019): 207,602


Estimated number of undocumented migrants (2019): 680,000 


Main migrant populations (2020): Romania, Albania, Morocco