Updated 31.03.21

Healthcare rights of migrants

Asylum seekers: Are entitled to social welfare benefits and automatically insured against illness once they register as asylum seekers. After a removal order, however, they are excluded from social assistance. 

They may access all necessary medical and dental care, which includes both basic and emergency care


Refugees: Have access to health insurance, similarly to nationals. 


Undocumented migrants: Can access basic health insurance and if employed, they may also receive additional benefits through work. Services include primary care, secondary care, reproductive care, therapy, etc 

Insurance companies are obliged to accept everyone, as long as they have resided there for at least 3 months.

In order  to register  with  an insurance  company to  take out  basic  health insurance,  applicants have  to  provide their  full name,  date of  birth,  a  contact  address  and  a  bank  or  post account (bank  account  holder  must  not  necessarily  be  the  person  insured).  In  case  the  applicant’s residence  is  not  formally  registered,  the  actual  domicile  is  to  be  considered as the place  of residence.

HIV testing and treatment

Testing: Free in certain places and usually for people with limited to no financial resources, as well as vulnerable populations such as migrants or sex workers. Anonymous in hospitals. 

Use the aidsmap European test finder to see where you can get tested for HIV. 

Treatment: Free for those who have private health insurance, which is normally paid via insurance premiums.  Financial assistance is available for those in need to cover a portion of insurance premiums. 

Country Statistics

Total Population: 8,654,622


Estimated migrant population: 2,438,702


Estimated refugee population (2019): 110,162


Estimated number of undocumented migrants (2019): 100,000


Main migrant populations (2020): Germany, Italy, Portugal